Um Mapeamento Sistemático sobre Acessibilidade e Usabilidade no Desenvolvimento de Jogos Digitais para Idosos

Flávia de Souza Santos, André de Lima Salgado, Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes


Este mapeamento buscou conhecer como, quando e onde aspectos de acessibilidade e usabilidade são abordados durante o desenvolvimento de jogos digitais para usuários idosos. Abordamos 20.270 resultados iniciais, amostramos 1.755 e identificamos 46 publicações após o processo do mapeamento. Os resultados deste mapeamento mostraram uma preferência em pesquisas que abordem avaliação de acessibilidade e de usabilidade neste domínio. Este mapeamento também evidenciou que, neste domínio e na amostragem considerada, pesquisas apenas abordaram acessibilidade quando usabilidade também foi abordada por alguma razão. Ainda, as análises de resultados indicaram a predominância significativa ($\chi^2 = 45.9103$, $p-valor < .01$) de abordagens que consideram usabilidade (43) sobre abordagens que consideram acessibilidade (11). Neste contexto, sugerimos questões de pesquisa para revisões sistemáticas futuras na área.


acessibilidade; usabilidade; jogos digitais; idosos

Texto completo:



- Ahn, H. S., Santos, M. P. G., Wadhwa, C., and MacDonald, B. (2014). Development of brain training games for a healthcare service robot for older people. In International Conference on Social Robotics, pages 1–10, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Springer.

- Ben-Sadoun, G., Sacco, G., Manera, V., Bourgeois, J., K¨onig, A., Foulon, P., Fosty, B., Bremond, F., d’Arripe Longueville, F., and Robert, P. (2016). Physical and cognitive stimulation using an exergame in subjects with normal aging, mild and moderate cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 53(4):1299–1314.

- Billis, A. S., Konstantinidis, E. I., Ladas, A. I., Tsolaki, M. N., Pappas, C., and Bamidis, P. D. (2011). Evaluating affective usability experiences of an exergaming platform for seniors. InBiomedicalEngineering, 201110thInternationalWorkshopon,pages1–4, Kos, Greece. IEEE.

- Birn, T., Holzmann, C., and Stech, W. (2014). Mobilequiz: A serious game for enhancing the physical and cognitive abilities of older adults. In International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, pages 3–14, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Springer.

- Boletsis, C. and McCallum, S. (2016a). Augmented reality cubes for cognitive gaming: preliminary usability and game experience testing. Int. J. Serious Games, 3(1):3–18.

- Boletsis, C. and McCallum, S. (2016b). Evaluating a gaming system for cognitive screening and sleep duration assessment of elderly players: a pilot study. In Games and Learning Alliance, pages 107–119. Springer, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

- BRASIL (2015). LEI No 13.146, DE 6 DE JULHO DE 2015. Lei Brasileira de Inclus˜ao da Pessoa com Deficiˆencia. Dispon´ıvel em: ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2015/lei/l13146.htm.

- Brox, E., Konstantinidis, S. T., and Evertsen, G. (2017). User-centered design of serious games for older adults following 3 years of experience with exergames for seniors: A study design. JMIR serious games, 5(1).

- Buiza, C., Gonzalez, M. F., Facal, D., Martinez, V., Diaz, U., Etxaniz, A., Urdaneta, E., and Yanguas, J. (2009). Efficacy of cognitive training experiences in the elderly: Can technology help? In International Conference on Universal Access in HumanComputer Interaction, pages 324–333, San Diego, CA, USA. Springer.

- Cota, T. T., Ishitani, L., and Vieira, N. (2015). Mobile game design for the elderly: A study with focus on the motivation to play. Computers in Human Behavior, 51(Part A):96 – 105.

- Crabb, M. and Hanson, V. L. (2016). An analysis of age, technology usage, and cognitive characteristics within information retrieval tasks. ACM Trans. Access. Comput., 8(3):10:1–10:26.

- de Lara, S. M. A., Fortes, R. P. d. M., Russo, C. M., and Freire, A. P. (2016). A study on the acceptance of website interaction aids by older adults. Universal Access in the Information Society, 15(3):445–460.

- Fortes, R. P. M., de Lima Salgado, A., de Souza Santos, F., Amaral, L. A., and Silva, E. A. N. (2017). Game Accessibility Evaluation Methods: A Literature Survey, pages 182–192. Springer International Publishing, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

- Frutos-Pascual, M., Garc´ıa-Zapirain, B., and M´endez-Zorrilla, A. (2012). Improvement in cognitive therapies aimed at the elderly using a mixed-reality tool based on tangram game. In Computer Applications for Graphics, Grid Computing, and Industrial Environment, pages 68–75. Springer, Gangneug, Korea.

- Gamberini, L., Martino, F., Seraglia, B., Spagnolli, A., Fabregat, M., Ibanez, F., Alcaniz, M., and Andr´es, J. M. (2009). Eldergames project: An innovative mixed reality table-top solution to preserve cognitive functions in elderly people. In Human System Interactions, 2009. HSI’09. 2nd Conference on, pages 164–169, Catania, Italy. IEEE.

- Gamberini, L., Raya, M. A., Barresi, G., Fabregat, M., Ibanez, F., and Prontu, L. (2006). Cognition, technology and games for the elderly: An introduction to eldergames project. PsychNology Journal, 4(3):285–308.

- Ganesan, S. and Anthony, L. (2012). Using the kinect to encourage older adults to exercise: a prototype. In CHI’12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 2297–2302, Austin, Texas, USA. ACM.

- Garcia-Sanjuan, F., Jaen, J., and Nacher, V. (2017). Tangibot: a tangible-mediated robot tosupportcognitivegamesforageingpeople—ausabilitystudy. PervasiveandMobile Computing, 34:91–105.

- Gerling,K.M.,Mandryk,R.L.,andKalyn,M.R.(2013). Wheelchair-basedgamedesign for older adults. In Proceedings of the 15th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, page 27, Bellevue, Washington. ACM.

- Gerling, K. M., Schild, J., and Masuch, M. (2010). Exergame design for elderly users: the case study of silverbalance. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on AdvancesinComputerEntertainmentTechnology,pages66–69,Taipei,Taiwan.ACM.

- Gerling, K. M., Schulte, F. P., and Masuch, M. (2011). Designing and evaluating digital games for frail elderly persons. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology, page 62, Lisbon, Portugal. ACM.

- Gitlow, L. (2014). Technology use by older adults and barriers to using technology. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 32(3):271–280.

- Hardy, S., Dutz, T., Wiemeyer, J., G¨obel, S., and Steinmetz, R. (2015). Framework for personalized and adaptive game-based training programs in health sport. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 74(14):5289–5311.

- Hwang,M.-Y.,Hong,J.-C.,Jong,J.-T.,Lee,C.-K.,andChang,H.-Y.(2009).Fromfingers toembodiment: Astudyontherelationsoftheusability,dependabilityoftheembodied interactive video games and the elders’ flow experience. Learning by Playing. Gamebased Education System Design and Development, pages 464–472.

- Ijsselsteijn, W., Nap, H. H., de Kort, Y., and Poels, K. (2007). Digital game design for elderly users. In Proceedings of the 2007 conference on Future Play, pages 17–22, Toronto, Canada. ACM.

- ISO/IEC 25066:2016(en) (2016). Sys. and software engineering — Sys. and software Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) — Common Industry Format (CIF) for Usability — Evaluation Report. Technical report.

- ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 (2017). ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 - Systems and software engineering – Software life cycle processes.

- Khoo, E. T., Merritt, T., and Cheok, A. D. (2008). Designing physical and social intergenerational family entertainment. Interacting with computers, 21(1-2):76–87.

- Kitchenham, B., Pearl Brereton, O., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Bailey, J., and Linkman, S. (2009). Systematicliteraturereviewsinsoftwareengineering–Asystematicliterature review. Information and Software Technology, 51(1):7–15.

- Konstantinidis,E.I.,Bamparopoulos,G.,andBamidis,P.D.(2017). Movingrealexergaming engines on the web: The webfitforall case study in an active and healthy ageing livinglabenvironment. IEEEjournalofbiomedicalandhealthinformatics,21(3):859– 866.

- Konstantinidis, E. I., Billis, A. S., Mouzakidis, C. A., Zilidou, V. I., Antoniou, P. E., and Bamidis,P.D.(2016). Design,implementation,andwidepilotdeploymentoffitforall: aneasytouseexergamingplatformimprovingphysicalfitnessandlifequalityofsenior citizens. IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, 20(1):189–200.

- Korhonen, H. and Koivisto, E. M. I. (2006). Playability heuristics for mobile games. In Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Human-computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, MobileHCI ’06, pages 9–16, New York, NY, USA. ACM.

- Kurniawan, S. (2008). Older people and mobile phones: A multi-method investigation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(12):889–901.

- Kwon, S.-M. and So, H.-J. (2014). Investigating the needs of brain fitness programs in a mobile platform among older users: an initial user study. In Proceedings of HCI Korea, pages 98–103, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Hanbit Media, Inc.

- Lewis, J. R. (1995). Ibm computer usability satisfaction questionnaires: psychometric evaluation and instructions for use. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7(1):57–78.

- Li, J. (2014). Examining the impact of game interventions on depression among older adults. In Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computerhuman Interaction in Play, CHI PLAY ’14, pages 291–294, New York, NY, USA. ACM.

- Lin, D.-Y. M. and Wu, L.-C. (2013). Design and assessing the usability of an interactive digital game in assisting the older adult’s prescriptive medication behavior. In International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, pages 121–126, Las Vegas, NV, USA. Springer.

- Liu, Z., Liao, C., and Choe, P. (2014). An approach of indoor exercise: Kinect-based videogameforelderlypeople. InInternationalConferenceonCross-CulturalDesign, pages 193–200, Crete, Greece. Springer.

- Liukkonen,T.N.,Ahtosalo,H.,Heinonen,T.,Raitoharju,R.,Pitkakangas,P.,andMakila, T.(2015). Motiontrackingexergamesforelderlyusers. IADIS -International Journal on Computer Science and Information Systems, 10(2):52–64.

- Marinelli, E. C. and Rogers, W. A. (2014). Identifying potential usability challenges for xbox 360 kinect exergames for older adults. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 58(1):1247–1251.

- McLaughlin, A. C., Bryant, M. R., Sprufera, J. F., Allaire, J. C., and Gandy, M. (2013). Usability an important goal for the design of therapeutic games for older adults. In International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, pages 358–364, Las Vegas, NV, USA. Springer.

- Meza-Kubo, V. and Mor´an, A. L. (2013). Ucsa: a design framework for usable cognitive systems for the worried-well. Personal and ubiquitous computing, 17(6):1135–1145.

- Motti, L. G., Vigouroux, N., and Gorce, P. (2015). Improving accessibility of tactile interaction for older users: lowering accuracy requirements to support drag-and-drop interaction. Procedia Computer Science, 67:366–375.

- Nap, H., Diaz-orueta, U., Fern´andez Gonz´alez, M., Lozar-Manfreda, K., Facal, D., Dolniˇcar, V., Oyarzun, D., Ranga, M., and De Schutter, B. (2015). Older people’s perceptions and experiences of a digital learning game.

- Norman, D. (2013). The design of everyday things: Revised and expanded edition. Basic Books (AZ).

- Novick, D., Vicario, J., Santaella, B., and Gris, I. (2014). Empirical Analysis of Playability vs. Usability in a Computer Game, pages 720–731. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

- Palacio, R. R., Acosta, C. O., Cortez, J., and Mor´an, A. L. (2017). Usability perception of different video game devices in elderly users. Universal Access in the Information Society, 16(1):103–113.

- Park, C. (2009). Intelligent interface for elderly games. In International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, pages 704–710, San Diego, CA, USA. Springer.

- Peek, S. T., Wouters, E. J., van Hoof, J., Luijkx, K. G., Boeije, H. R., and Vrijhoef, H. J. (2014). Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review. International journal of medical informatics, 83(4):235–248.

- Petersen, K., Feldt, R., Mujtaba, S., and Mattsson, M. (2008). Systematic Mapping Studies in Software Engineering. In EASE, volume 8, pages 68–77.

- Petrie, H., Savva, A., and Power, C. (2015). Towards a unified definition of web accessibility. InProceedingsofthe12thWebforAllConference,W4A’15,pages35:1–35:13, New York, NY, USA. ACM.

- Planinc, R., Nake, I., and Kampel, M. (2013). Exergame design guidelines for enhancing elderly’s physical and social activities. In AMBIENT 2013, The Third International Conference on Ambient Computing, Applications, Services and Technologies, pages 58–63.

- Pyae, A., Liukkonen, T. N., Saarenp¨ a¨a, T., Luimula, M., Granholm, P., and Smed, J. (2016a). When japanese elderly people play a finnishphysicalexercisegame: ausability study. Journal of Usability Studies, 11(4):131–152.

- Pyae, A., Luimula, M., and Smed, J. (2015). Investigating the usability of interactive physical activity games for elderly: A pilot study. In Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom), 2015 6th IEEE International Conference on, pages 185–193, Gyor, Hungary. IEEE.

- Pyae,A.,Raitoharju,R.,Luimula,M.,Pitk¨akangas,P.,andSmed,J.(2016b). Seriousgamesandactivehealthyageing: apilotusabilitytestingofexistinggames. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 16(1):103–120.

- Rand, D., Kizony, R., and Weiss, P. T. L. (2008). The sony playstation ii eyetoy: lowcost virtual reality for use in rehabilitation. Journal of neurologic physical therapy, 32(4):155–163.

- Rice, M., Wan, M., Foo, M.-H., Ng, J., Wai, Z., Kwok, J., Lee, S., and Teo, L. (2011). Evaluating gesture-based games with older adults on a large screen display. In Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Video Games, pages 17–24, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ACM.

- Shim, N., Baecker, R., Birnholtz, J., and Moffatt, K. (2010). Tabletalk poker: an online social gaming environment for seniors. In Proceedings of the International Academic Conference on the Future of Game Design and Technology,pages98–104, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ACM.

- Silva, M. B. D. d., Nascimento, R. P. C. d., Nunes, I. D., and Nunes, M. A. S. N. (2017). Iniciativas Nacionais de Governanc¸a de TIC que sugerem Modelos, T´ecnicas e Boas Pr´aticas para a Administrac¸˜ao P´ublica Federal: um Mapeamento Sistem´atico. iSys Revista Brasileira de Sistemas de Informac¸˜ao, 10(1):39–51.

- Silva, P. A., Nunes, F., Vasconcelos, A., Kerwin, M., Moutinho, R., and Teixeira, P. (2013). Usingthesmartphoneaccelerometertomonitorfallriskwhileplayingagame: the design and usability evaluation of dance! don’t fall. In International Conference on Augmented Cognition, pages 754–763, Las Vegas, NV, USA. Springer.

- Sunwoo, J., Yuen, W., Lutteroth, C., and W¨unsche, B. (2010). Mobile games for elderly healthcare. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the NZ Chapter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Human-Computer Interaction, pages 73–76, Auckland, New Zealand. ACM.

- Tong, T. and Chignell, M. (2013). Designing game-based cognitive assessments for elderly adults. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful design, research, and applications, pages 127–130, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ACM.

- Tong, T. and Chignell, M. (2014). Developing a serious game for cognitive assessment: choosingsettingsandmeasuringperformance. InProceedings of the second international symposium of Chinese CHI, pages 70–79, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ACM.

- Vallejo, V., Mitache, A. V., Tarnanas, I., M¨uri, R., Mosimann, U. P., and Nef, T. (2015). Combining qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze serious games outcomes: A pilot study for a new cognitive screening tool. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pages 1327–1330, Milan, Italy. IEEE.

- Wang, J.-Y. (2016). Designing brain training games and evaluating the usability between young and elderly. In Information Science and Control Engineering (ICISCE), 2016 3rd International Conference on, pages 308–312, Beijing, China. IEEE.

- Whitlock, L. A., McLaughlin, A. C., Leidheiser, W., Gandy, M., and Allaire, J. C. (2014). Know before you go: feelings of flow for older players depends on game andplayercharacteristics. InProceedingsofthefirstACMSIGCHIannualsymposium on Computer-human interaction in play, pages 277–286, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ACM.

- WHO,M.C.(2015). Who: Numberofpeopleover60yearssettodoubleby2050;major societal changes required.

- Yuan, B., Folmer, E., and Harris, F. C. (2011). Game accessibility: a survey. Universal Access in the Information Society, 10(1):81–100.

- Zajicek,M.(2001). Interfacedesignforolderadults. InProceedingsofthe2001EC/NSF workshop on Universal accessibility of ubiquitous computing: providing for the elderly, pages 60–65, Alc´acer do Sal, Portugal. ACM.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

iSys - Revista Brasileira de Sistemas de Informação - CESI/SBC
ISSN Eletrônico: 1984-2902